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Геодинамика и тектонофизика

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ДЛИННОПЕРИОДНЫЕ ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ В СООТНОШЕНИИ ПРОЦЕССОВ ТЕКТОНО-ПЛИТНОГО И МАНТИЙНО-ПЛЮМОВОГО ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЯ В ДОКЕМБРИИ

https://doi.org/10.5800/GT-2016-7-2-0203

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Аннотация

Как ни парадоксально, в списках главных свидетельств обстановок как тектоники плит, так и тектоники плюмов отсутствуют любые упоминания о породах, подвергшихся метаморфизму при высоких параметрах, таких как гранулиты, амфиболиты, высокотемпературные эклогиты. Между тем гранулито-гнейсовые пояса и ареалы, которые включают такие породы, имеют региональное распространение как в докембрии, так и в фанерозое. Возникновение и эволюция гранулито-гнейсовых поясов связаны с мантийно-плюмовой активностью, которая выражается в интенсивном прогреве континентальной коры, внутриплитном магматизме, формировании рифтогенных депрессий, заполнявшихся осадками, ювенильными лавами и отложениями пирокластических потоков, в метаморфизме пород нижней и средней коры в условиях гранулитовой и высокотемпературной амфиболитовой фации, который распространяется также и на породы, заполнившие рифтогенные депрессии. Гранулито-гнейсовые комплексы Восточно-Европейского кратона представляют собой один из главных компонентов обширных овальных внутриконтинентальных тектонических структур регионального или континентального уровня. Благодаря вовлечению в обсуждение гранулито-гнейсовых комплексов Восточной Европы, Северной и Южной Америки, Африки, Индии, Китая и Австралии стала очевидной необходимость значительного пересмотра существующих взглядов на соотношения процессов тектоно-плитного и тектоно-плюмового типа, равно как и процессов сборки и распада суперконтинентов, в геологической истории. Показано, что Восточно-Европейский и Северо-Американский кратоны являются фрагментами долгоживущего суперконтинента Лавроскандия. После его возникновения около 2.8 млрд лет назад кора этого суперконтинента эволюционировала при воздействии последовательности мощных плюмов (суперплюмов) вплоть до ~0.85 млрд лет. За это время Лавроскандия неоднократно подвергалась рифтингу, частичному расколу и последующему восстановлению целостности континента. Процессы тектоно-плитного типа (рифтинг с переходом в спрединг с последующим закрытием короткоживущего океана с участием субдукции) во внутренней области Лавроскандии контролировались суперплюмами. Переоценка природы гранулито-гнейсовых комплексов привела к ряду принципиально новых заключений: о существенно более значительной, чем предполагалось раньше, роли мантийно-плюмовых событий в приросте ювенильной континентальной коры, особенно в неоархее – протерозое, о существовании суперконтинента Лавроскандия с ~2.85 до 0.85 млрд лет, о ведущей роли мантийных плюмов во взаимодействии тектоники плит и тектоники плюмов в неоархейской – протерозойской истории Лавроскандии и, возможно, в истории континентальной коры в целом. Мы предполагаем, что эволюция геодинамических обстановок в истории корообразования может быть представлена в виде спиральной последовательности: взаимодействие мантийно-плюмовых процессов и эмбриональной тектоники плит в палеомезоархее (~3.8–2.8 млрд лет) → плюм-тектоника и локально проявленная тектоника плит, инициированная плюмами (~2.80–0.55 млрд лет) → фанерозойская тектоника плит при редуцированной роли мантийных плюмов.

Об авторах

М. В. Минц
Геологический институт РАН
Россия

докт. геол.-мин. наук, зав. лабораторией,

119017, Москва, Пыжевский пер., 7



П. Г. Эрикссон
Университет Претории
Южно-Африканская Республика

профессор, Геологический отдел,

Претория 0002



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Для цитирования:


Минц М.В., Эрикссон П.Г. ДЛИННОПЕРИОДНЫЕ ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ В СООТНОШЕНИИ ПРОЦЕССОВ ТЕКТОНО-ПЛИТНОГО И МАНТИЙНО-ПЛЮМОВОГО ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЯ В ДОКЕМБРИИ. Геодинамика и тектонофизика. 2016;7(2):173-232. https://doi.org/10.5800/GT-2016-7-2-0203

For citation:


Mints M.V., Eriksson P.G. SECULAR CHANGES IN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PLATE-TECTONIC AND MANTLE-PLUME ENGENDERED PROCESSES DURING PRECAMBRIAN TIME. Geodynamics & Tectonophysics. 2016;7(2):173-232. https://doi.org/10.5800/GT-2016-7-2-0203

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